Measurement and Error : Accuracy and precision, Sensitivity, Linearity, Resolution, Hysterisis, Loading effect. Measurements of current, Voltage, Power and impedance : DC and AC ammeter, DC voltmeter - Chopper type and solid-state, AC voltmeter using rectifier, Average, RMS, Peak responding voltmeters, Multi-meter, Power meter, Bolometer and calorimeter.
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) : Different parts of CRO, Block diagram, Electrostatic focusing, Electrostatic deflection, Post deflection acceleration, Screen for CRTs, Graticules, Vertical and horizontal deflection system, Time base circuit, Oscilloscope probes, Applications of CRO, Special purpose CROs-multi input, Dual trace, Dual beam, Sampling, Storage (Analog and Digital), Oscilloscope.
A.C. Bridges : Maxwell’s bridge (Inductance and inductance-capacitance), Hay’s bridge, Schering bridge (High voltage and Relative permittivity), Wein bridge, Wagner earth detector, Impedance measurement by Q-meter. Non-Electrical Quantities (Transducer) : Classification of transducers, Strain gauge, Displacement transducer - Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) and Rotary Variable Differential Transformer (RVDT), Temperature transducer - Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD), Thermistor, Thermocouple, Piezo-electric transducer, Optical transducer - Photo emissive, Photo conductive, Photo voltaic, Photo-diode, Photo transistor, Nuclear radiation detector.
Signal generator and Display : Signal and function generators, Sweep frequency generator, Pulse and square wave generator, Beat frequency oscillator, Digital display system and indicators, Classification of displays, Display devices, Light Emitting Diodes(LED), Liquid Crystal Display(LCD).
Digital Measurement and Instruments : Advantages of digital instrument over analog instrument, Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) - Variable resistive type, R-2R ladder type, Binary ladder, Weighted converter using op-amp and transistor, Practical DAC. Analog-to-digital Conversion (ADC) - Ramp technique, Dual slope integrating type, Integrating type (Voltage to frequency), Successive approximations, Digital voltmeters and multi-meters, Resolution and sensitivity of digital meter, PLC structure, Principle of operation, Response time and application.