An overview of Electrical Energy Generation
General background, Structure and components of power network. Power generation - Introduction to conventional, Non-conventional and distributed generation, Effect of transmission voltage on power system economy. Selection of size of feeder. Comparison of isolated versus interconnected power system. Problems associated with modern large interconnected power system. Power plant economics - Load curves, Base load, Peak load, Load factor, Demand factor, Diversity factor, Capacity factor, Utilization factor, Cost of electricity, Capital cost, Fuel and operation cost.
Transmission Line Components and Underground Cabling
Inductance resistance and capacitance of transmission line, Calculation of inductance for 1-phase and 3-phase, Single and double circuit line, Concept of GMR and GMD, Symmetrical and asymmetrical conduction configuration, Calculation of capacitance for 2 wire and 3 wire systems, Effect of ground or capacitance, Capacitance calculation for symmetrical and asymmetrical 1-phase and 3-phase, Single and double circuit line, Charging current, Transposition of line, Composite conductor, Skin and proximity effect, Bundle conductor.
Comparison of cables and overhead transmission lines, Classification of cables, Requirement of cable construction, Capacitance of single and multi-core cable, Economic core diameter, Dielectric stress in cable, Grading of cables, Ionization of heating of cables, Phenomena of dielectric losses and sheath loss in cables, Thermal resistance of cables.
Transmission Systems and Performance of Transmission Line
Various systems of transmission, Effect of system voltage, Comparison of conductor materials required for various overhead systems.
Short, medium and long transmission line and their representation, Nominal T, Nominal , Equivalent T and equivalent , Network models, ABCD constants for symmetrical and asymmetrical network, Mathematical solution to estimate regulation and efficiency of all types of lines.
Surge impedance, Loading, Interpretation of long line equation and its equivalent equation. Tuned power lines. Power flow through transmission line, Circle diagram, Method of voltage control, Static and rotating VAR generator, Transformer control.
Insulator and Mechanical Design
Types of conductors used in overhead transmission line, Types of line supports and towers, Distribution of conductors over transmission towers, Spacing between conductors, Length of span and sag-tension calculation for transmission line, Wind and ice loading, Support of line at two different levels, String chart, Sag template, Stringing of conductor, Vibration and vibration dampers.
Materials used for transmission line insulations, Types of insulator for overhead transmission line failure of insulator, Voltage distribution of suspension insulator, String efficiency, Shielding and grading.
Voltage Control and Distribution System
AC single phase, 3 phase, 3 wire and 4 wire distribution, Kelvin’s law for most economical size of conductor substation layout showing substation equipment, Bus bar single bus bar and sectionalized bus bar, Main and transfer for bus bar system, Sectionalized double bus bar system, Ring mains.