Electronic voltmeter and current probes, Tuned type and sampling type voltmeter, Current probes for D.C. and A.C. measurements, Electronic multimeter - Construction, Measurement of D.C. and A.C. voltage and current, Measurement of resistance.
CRO - Construction, Synchronization, Measurement of voltage, Current, phase and frequency.
Digital instruments - Comparison of analog and digital instruments, Digital voltmeter, multimeter and frequency meter.
Terminology and definition, Classification, Transducing principles and elements, Ultrasonic, optical and infrared sensors, Inductive, capacitive and resistive transducers for measurements of length, Thickness, Displacement, Velocity, Torque, Level, Pressure, Temperature, Flow, Humidity, Moisture, and pH.
Block diagram representation of instrumentation system.
Recorders: x-y recorders, Strip-chart recorder, Magnetic and potentiometric recorder.
Digital displays- LED & LCD.
Introduction to data acquisition systems.