Types, Main equipment in substation, substation layout, Busbar-arrangements.
Isolators and Fuses
Isolating switches functions, Types, Rating and operation. Fuse-types, Rating, Selection, Theory and characteristics, Applications.
Need for circuit breakers, Arc phenomenon, Theory of arc interruption, Recovery voltage and restriking voltage, Various types of circuit breakers. Principles and Constructional details of air blast, Minimum oil, , Vacuum circuit breakers etc.
Introduction, Classification, Constructional features; and Characteristics of Electromagnetic, Induction, Thermal, Overcurrent relays, Directional relays, Distance relays, Differential, Translay, Negative sequence relay, Introduction to static and up-based relays.
Protection of Feeders
Time graded protection, Differential and Distance protection of feeders, Choice between impedance, Reactance and Mho relays, Elementary idea about carrier current protection of lines.
Protection of Generators and Transformers
Types of faults on alternator, Stator and rotor protection, Negative sequence protection, Loss of excitation and overload protection.
Types of fault on transformers, Percentage differential protection, Gas relays.
Protection against over voltage and earthing
Ground wires, Rod gap, Impulse gap, Valve type and Metal oxide arresters, Line arrester/surge absorber. Ungrounded neutral system, Grounded neutral system and Selection of neutral grounding.