Construction & working principle of synchronous machines, Excitation systems, Production of sinusoidal E.M.F., Flux & m.m.f. phasors in synchronous machines; Cylindrical & salient pole rotors.
Classification of windings, Pitch factor, Distribution factor, E.M.F. equation.
Construction, Phasor diagram of cylindrical rotor alternator, Ratings, Nature of armature reaction, Determination of synchronous reactance ; Open circuit characteristics, Short circuit characteristics, Short circuit ratio, Short circuit loss, Effect of variation of power factor on voltage, Determination of voltage regulation: E.M.F. method, M.M.F. method, Z.P.F. method,
Alternator on infinite bus bar, Operating characteristics, Operation at constant load and variable excitation, Power flow through inductive impedance.
Power-angle characteristics of synchronous machines:- cylindrical & salient pole, Two reaction theory of salient pole machines, Power factor control.
Operating characteristics, Power-angle characteristics, Conditions for maximum power developed, V-curves and inverted V-curves, Methods of starting, Synchronous motors applications, Synchronous condensers.
Parallel Operation of Alternators
Conditions for proper synchronizing for single phase and three phase alternators, Conditions for parallel operation, Synchronizing power, Current and torque, Effect of increasing excitation of one of the alternators, Effect of change of speed of one of the alternators, Effect of unequal voltages, Load sharing, Hunting and damper windings.
Transients analysis, Transient reactances & time constants from equivalent circuits, Synchronous machine reactances & their determination, Short circuit oscillogram, Synchronization with the grid system, Qualitative introduction to the transient stability of the synchronous machines.
Single Phase Synchronous Motors
Reluctance & hysteresis motors.